Footnotes

  1. “Overfished” is defined as a stock having been fished to a point where the population is below a population size threshold. Overfishing is the act of fishing at a higher rate than that defined as the overfishing rate (e.g. the rate expected to produce the maximum sustainable yield).
  2. “A white bear reported at Halfway Point. Benedict Bolackshen reports seeing it upon the 28th. Upon seeing Benedict the bear took to the ice” (John W. Beaman, Treasury Agent, St. Paul Agent Log Book, March 30, 1880). “These men report seeing bear tracks near the Company House at Zapadnie…They lead from the sea line to a place where the animal had apparently laid down and again to where it again took to the water” (Alexander H. Proctor, Treasury Agent, St. George Island Log Book, April 26, 1915.)
  3. The navigator’s name is variously spelled and reported by Pierce and Donnelly. In 1990, Pierce (1990, 412) referred to him as Gavriil Loginovich Pribylov. In other publications, Pierce (1984, 135) referred to the Russian navigator as Gavrilo Pribylov. Pierce has also named him as Gerasim [Gavril] Pribylov (1994, 268). In one text, Pierce and Donnelly (1979, 253) referred to Prybilov as Gavrilo Loginovich Pribylof. Elliott called the navigator Gehrman Pribylov (1880, 8). Pierce has translated and edited many works by Russian authors, including Veniaminov (1984), Khlenbnikov (1994), and Tikhmenev (Pierce and Donnelly 1978 and 1979).
  4. Elliott (1880, 8) referred to Pribylov’s vessel as a “small sloop,” but more recent publications refer to it as a galiot (Solovjova and Vovnyanko 2002, 24; Black 2004, 104).
  5. Veniaminov (1984, 124–135) recounts this story.
  6. Bergsland, Aleut Dictionary, 591, 616–617. On page 587, Bergsland cites sources for these names, but the full references did not appear in the body of the work.
  7. “Starry Arteel” has been variously spelled by authors (e.g., Staraya Artil, Staraya Artel). An artel has been defined as a work crew, or a group of hunters working a specified territory (Pierce and Donnelly 1979, 242), and as an old settlement (Elliott 1976, 19).
  8. See Essig et al., Fort Ross, 35, 36, 60 and Okun, 57.
  9. Shiels, 1949, 84-85.
  10. Speech of Hon. Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, on the Cession of Russian America to the United States (Washington: Printed at the Congressional Globe Office, 1867); James Alton James, The First Scientific Exploration of Russian America and the Purchase of Alaska. (Evanston: Northwestern University Press, 1942); Archie W. Shiels, The Purchase of Alaska (College: University of Alaska, 1967).
  11. May 11, 1868, Letter from the Secretary of State to honorable N. P. Banks, relative to St. Paul Island, enclosing a copy of correspondence passed between his Excellency the governor of California and the Department of State on November 20, 1867,  40th Cong., 2nd sess., HR Misc. doc. no. 131.
  12. Letter to the Secretary of the Treasury communicating the reports of Captain Charles Bryant and H. A. McIntyre, 41st Cong., 2nd sess., Senate Ex. Doc. 32.
  13. Elliot, 1881, 25; Fur-Seal Arbitration: Proceedings of the Tribunal of Arbitrations at Paris, vol. 3, (Washington, DC: GPO, 1895) pp. 60–61.
  14. A Resolution more efficiently to protect the Fur Seal in Alaska, 40th Cong., 3rd sess., 1868–1869, Res. 22.
  15. An Act to Prevent the Extermination of Fur-Bearing Animals in Alaska, 41st Cong., 2nd sess., 1870, H. R. 2036.
  16. Ibid.
  17. An Act to amend the Act entitled “An act to prevent the extermination of fur-bearing Animals in Alaska,” 43rd Cong., 1st sess., 1874, ch. 64.
  18. Bernhard Bendel wrote the “Resolutions of the Anti-Monopoly Association of the Pacific Coast.” The document is available electronically from the Library of Congress’ online collection titled An American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera.
  19. Jupp (1967, 88) stated, without supporting documentation, “In 1883 the American schooner, City of San Diego, with a white captain and Indian crew, became the first New World vessel to hunt in these rich grounds [Bering Sea].”
  20. Ratifications were exchanged in Washington on December 12, 1911. The convention was proclaimed on December 14, 1911.
  21. Report from Mr. Sulzer, Committee on Foreign Affairs, submitted to House of Representatives, 62nd Cong., 2nd sess., 1911, Report  295.
  22. Aleut Community of St. Paul Island v. the United States, petition before the Indian Claims Commission, filed August 11, 1951, Doc 352.
  23. Indian Claims Commission 1, Docs. 352 and 369.
  24. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, Sites Eligible for the Registry of National Landmarks, p. 3.
  25. See http://www.nps.gov/history; [Historic Sites Act of 1935, 16 U.S.C. sec.461–467].
  26. Memorandum by John A. Rutter, Superintendent Mount Rainier to National Park Service Regional Director, Western Region, October 7, 1966, Subject: Landmark Presentation Ceremony for Fur Seal Rookeries, Alaska.  Files of the National Parks Service, 240 W. 5th Ave. Anchorage, Alaska 99501.
  27. Today, “harbor seal” is the common name given to Phoca vitulina. Its family, Phocidae, represents several seal species referred to as hair seals.
  28. Pierce 1994, 277. Khlebnikov served in Russian America as an assistant of several governors from 1818 to 1832.
  29. James Judge papers Oregon Historical Society, Portland, OR (MSS–230).
  30. G Dallas Hanna (2008) discussed Phoca richardii pribilofensis or the hair seal. Other publications from the early twentieth century (Preble and McAtee 1923; Bailey and Hendee 1926) also discussed Phoca richardii pribilofensi, giving it the common name “hair seal” and/or “Pribilof harbor seal.” Today, Phoca vitulina is the scientific name used for the harbor seal. P. v. richardsii is one of two subspecies of the Pacific harbor seal (Hover 1988). In his late nineteenth-century writing, Elliott discusses the hair seal, P. vitulina (Elliott 1976, 28–29).
  31. Alexander H. Proctor, Treasury Agent, St. George Island Log Book, April 26, 1915.
  32. From the document titled “St. Paul and St. George Islands, Summary of Work for Corps of Engineers 1985 Cleanup Project under Defense Environmental Restoration Program for Formerly Used Defense Sites” found in section F.1 of the Pribilof Islands Environmental Restoration Project 2004 Administrative Record.
  33. During the winter of 2007, the companies responsible for processing crab at the Pribilof Islands suspended their operations. The operations resumed in late 2007 and continued into 2008.
  34. St. George Island Agent’s Log, 65. John H. Moulton, Agent. August 28, 1878. National Archives and Records Administration, Anchorage, Alaska.
  35. This information was provided by the Pribilof School District, August 2006.
  36. See http://www.apicda.com.